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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 201-206

Sputum smear pattern among patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria

1 Department of Medicine, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
2 Department of Clinical Services, Bishop Murray Medical Centre Makurdi (BMMC), Makurdi, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
U A Eze
Clinical Services Department,National Eye Centre, P.M.B. 2267, Kaduna
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1115-2613.278928

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BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in Nigeria due mainly to the high burden of HIV/AIDS and especially in Benue state which has the highest prevalence of HIV in Nigeria. Sputum smear examination is of importance in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB and can be smear-positive or negative. In this study, we analyzed the sputum smear results of all patients diagnosed to have PTB during the time under review. METHODS The study was a retrospective study done with records of patients diagnosed with PTB between July 2009 and July 2011.The sample size was 305. AIM To determine the smear patterns in pulmonary tuberculosis and its relationship with HIV status. RESULTS There was slight male preponderance among the study group.37% were found to be smear positive,out of which 63.7% and 36.3% were males and females respectively. The highest frequency was between 21 – 40 years and in this age group there were more males than females.72.1% were TB/HIV co-infected and 29.1% of the TB/HIV co-infected patients had smear-positive Tuberculosis. CONCLUSION There is a high burden of TB/HIV co-infection affecting predominantly the youths. Sputum smear results in TB/HIV co-infection are largely negative. There is the need for provision of other diagnostic tests to improve the diagnosis of TB in our environment and targeted intervention among the youth to reduce the burden of TB/HIV.

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