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  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2015| July-September  | Volume 24 | Issue 3  
    Online since February 21, 2020

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Hematological indices in automotive technicians in Nnewi, South-East Nigeria
Ibeh Nancy, Aneke John, Okocha Chide, Nkwazema Amobi
July-September 2015, 24(3):256-260
DOI:10.4103/1115-2613.278936  
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to petroleum products is known to be associated with a number of health risks as well as adverse effects on haematological indices. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of exposure to petroleum products on haematological parameters in automobile mechanics in Nnewi,south-east Nigeria. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty (50) automobile technicians and 50 healthy controls participated in the study. Full blood count was performed for each participant using the automated Sysmex haemocytometer (Model PCE 210) while data analysis was done using the SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) version 16 computer soft ware (Chicago, IL, Inc.). Results were expressed as frequencies,means and standard deviations;comparison of haematological parameters was made between subjects and controls and at different durations of exposure using the students't-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA), respectively. The level of statistical significance was p<0.05 (at 95% CI). Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional review board and all participants gave informed consent. RESULTS: There red blood cell count (RBC) and haematocrit were significantly lower while the platelet count was significantly higher in test subjects compared with controls (p values; 0.04, 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Correspondingly, the mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) were significantly lower in test subjects compared with controls (p=0.02 and 0.03, respectively).The red cell count, MCV and platelet count significantly decreased with increasing duration of work exposure (p=0.001,respectively). CONCLUSION: Occupational exposure to petroleum products adversely affects blood counts,with a significant decrease in RBC,MCV and platelet count as duration of exposure increases.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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The predictive value of serum uric acid for the occurrence, severity and outcomes of pre-eclampsia among parturients at Nnewi , Nigeria
Osakwe Chukwudi Richmond, C Ikpeze Okechukwu, Ezebialu Ifeanyi Uzoma, Osakwe Joy Oluchi, Mbadugha Norah Nwadiogo
July-September 2015, 24(3):192-200
DOI:10.4103/1115-2613.278927  
OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive value of serum uric acid for preeclampsia, its severity and pregnancy outcome. METHODS: This is a cohort study that was performed on normal pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi Nigeria. Serum uric acid was determined in 200 women attending antenatal clinic between the gestational ages of 14 and 26 weeks. The women were followed up at 2 weekly intervals until 36 weeks and weekly thereafter until delivery. Women who developed pre-eclampsia or eclampsia were identified. Pregnancy outcomes were determined as well as fetal and placental weights. The data was analysed with SPSS version 16.0. The chi square was used for test of significance. The positive and negative predictive values were determined. RESULTS: A total of 200 normal pregnant women were recruited for the study. Nine of them were lost to follow up. Subsequently,10.5% of the women developed preeclampsia. The positive and negative predictive values of serum uric acid for preeclampsia were 78.9% and 97.1%,respectively. CONCLUSION: Serum uric acid was found to be a useful predictor of the occurrence of preeclampsia and its severity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Depression, anxiety, stress, and their associated factors among corps members serving in Kebbi State
Ahmed D Balami
July-September 2015, 24(3):223-232
DOI:10.4103/1115-2613.278931  
BACKGROUND Depression,anxiety and stress,are not only health problems by themselves,but also associated with other negative health consequences. The national youth service is usually characterized by a number of new challenges and experiences which may require life style adjustments by the corps member. However, no previous study on psychological factors has been conducted among corps members. OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress and their associated factors among corps members serving in Kebbi state. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 264 corps members from four local government areas of the state. Selection of the local government areas and the individual participants was by simple random sampling. Data was collected from May to June 2014 using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis used chi-square test to identify the relationship between categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression to identify the independent factors for depression,anxiety and stress each. RESULTS The response rate was 97%.Most of the respondents were males (63.6%),single (85.5%),and above 20 years of age (71.6%).The overall prevalences of depression, anxiety and stress among the respondents were 36.4%, 54.5% and 18.2% respectively. The independent factors for depression were; being from the North central (0R=5.99;95% CI: 2.194-16.354) or South-south;and the perception of earning enough income (0R=2.987;95% CI: 1.062-8.400).For anxiety, male gender (OR=0.411; 95% CI: 0.169-0.999); and being from the North central were significant risk factors (OR=3.731; 95% CI: 1.450-9.599). Being above 26 years of age was an independent risk factor for stress (OR=0.083;95% CI: 0.018-0.381).Also, those who had ever schooled outside their towns of residence were less likely to be stressed compared to those who had never (OR=0.30;95% CI: 0.110-0.855).All other factors did not show any significant association with any of the outcome variables in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the prevalences of depression, anxiety and stress are high among corps members serving in Kebbi state. There is need to expand the scope of this study to a national level so as to get a bigger picture of the problem.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Determinants of specialty choice of resident doctors; Case study- among resident doctors in Nigeria
Roland I Osuoji, Atinuke Adebanji, Moruf A Abdulsalam, Mobolaji A Oludara, Abimbola A Abolarinwa
July-September 2015, 24(3):207-212
DOI:10.4103/1115-2613.278929  
OBJECTIVE: This study examined medical specialty selection by Nigerian resident doctors using a marketing research approach to determine the selection criteria and the role of perceptions,expected remuneration,and job placement prospects of various specialties in the selection process. METHODS: Data were from the Community of residents from April 2014 to July 2014.The cohort included 200 residents,but only 171 had complete information. Data were obtained from a cross section of resident doctors in the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital and at the 2014 Ordinary General Meeting of the National Association of Resident Doctors(NARD) where representatives from over 50 Teaching hospitals in Nigeria attended. Using a client behaviour model as a framework,a tripartite questionnaire was designed and administered to residents to deduce information on their knowledge about and interests in various specialties, their opinions of sixteen specialties,and the criteria they used in specialty selection. RESULTS: A total of 171 (85.5%) questionnaires were returned. In many instances,consistency between selection criteria and perceptions of a specialty were accompanied by interest in pursuing the specialty. Job security, job availability on completion of programme, duration of training and qualifying examinations were highly correlated with pvalue <0.05. Results of the Principal Component Analysis show two components(with Eigenvalues greater than one) explaining 65.3% of the total variance. The first component had placement and training and practice related variables loaded on it while the second component was loaded with job security and financial remuneration related variables. CONCLUSIONS: Using marketing research concepts for medical specialty selection (Weissmanet al 2012) stipulates that choice of speciality is influenced by criteria and perception. This study shows that job security, expected financial remuneration, and examination requirements for qualification are major determinants of the choice of speciality for residents.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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COMMENTARY
Review of control of human immunodeficiency virus infection in Nigeria
N Dami, NY Shehu, S Dami, MO Iroezindu
July-September 2015, 24(3):281-286
DOI:10.4103/1115-2613.278941  
The global scourge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is inundating,especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular Nigeria which is home to 10% of the world's HIV-infected persons. The target of the millennium development goal 6 is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. HIV control in Nigeria was initially shrouded in denial and apathy. Subsequently, a more pragmatic approach was launched during the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo. Several policies were formulated. The national prevalence of HIV witnessed some progressive decline and is currently 4.1%.There is now improvement in both HIV awareness and counselling and testing. Greater access to antiretroviral therapy and other support services have also been witnessed with over 300,000 persons currently on drugs. Notable achievements have been recorded in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC).However, with increased access to antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral drug resistance has become inevitable. Acquired drug resistance is high-82% and transmitted drug resistance ranges between 0.7 and 4.5%. The achievements were largely facilitated by international partnerships which have become more streamlined in recent years. A sustained shift to indigenously sourced financial and manpower resource has become imperative. It is also important to integrate HIV facilities with other existing health care facilities for sustainability and costeffectiveness. In an attempt to strengthen the national response, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan launched the President's Comprehensive Response Plan for HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It is hoped that this well-articulated policy would be well implemented to significantly reverse the epidemic.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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CASE REPORTS
Transmigration of intra-uterine device, exploratory laparotomy, retrieval and repair of perforated uterus
SF Eli, E Olisa, DS Abam, CE Enyindah
July-September 2015, 24(3):273-276
DOI:10.4103/1115-2613.278939  
BACKGROUND: Perforation of the uterus following transmigration of Intra-uterine devise (IUD) is an uncommon finding of insertion of IUD. There is associated increased risk of accidental pregnancy,morbidity and mortality. AIM: To report a rare clinical condition in which there was uterine perforation following migration of IUD and to increase awareness of this condition in our environment. CASE REPORT: A 37 year old para 6+0 woman (all alive) who presented with a ten day history of lower abdominal pains following IUD insertion. Examination revealed tenderness in the suprapubic region and non-visualization of IUD thread per vaginam. Pelvic USS showed an empty uterine cavity while an abdominopelvic x-ray following tracer IUD insertion showed the IUD to be outside the uterine cavity. She had an exploratory laparotomy for retrieval of transmigrated IUD and repair of perforated uterus. CONCLUSION: Transmigrated IUD with uterine perforation is a distressing uncommon clinical condition, and it is reported with the hope of increasing the awareness and possibly prevent this avoidable uncommon complication.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma of the upper lip: Case report and review of the literature
B Fomete, OO Adeosun, DI Awelimobor, L Olayemie
July-September 2015, 24(3):277-280
DOI:10.4103/1115-2613.278940  
INTRODUCTION Pleomorphic adenoma or mixed tumour is a benign salivary gland tumour, presenting usually in the parotid or submandibular glands. This tumour contains elements of both epithelial and mesenchymal origin. They are the most common tumours (50%), (60-65%) of the major and minor salivary glands. The palate is considered as the most common intraoral site (42.8–68.8%),followed by the upper lip (10.1%) and cheek (5.5%). CASE REPORT A 37 year old female Nigerian house wife was seen with a four year history of painless slowly progressive upper lip swelling. Prior to her presentation, she had surgery for same swelling in a peripheral hospital. All other histories were not significant. CONCLUSION PA remains the commonest benign minor salivary gland neoplasm and excision with safe margins the treatment of choice.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Patient's perception on the quality of radiotherapy services in two teaching hospitals in Nigeria
C Anthonia Sowunmi, Fatiregun Omolara Amina, O Alabi Adewumi, Ibitoye A Zaccheus, Irurhe A Kingsley, SA Oyedeji
July-September 2015, 24(3):246-251
DOI:10.4103/1115-2613.278934  
OBJECTIVE: Patient satisfaction is an important and commonly used indicator for measuring the quality in health care. Patient satisfaction affects clinical outcomes, patient retention, and medical malpractice claims. It affects the 13 timely, efficient, and patient-centered delivery of quality health care 13.A review of quality of services from the patient's perspective could be a method of assessing in order to improve servicesand achieve total quality management. This study was designed to assess patients' perception on the quality of Radiotherapy services in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) Lagos and University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan. METHODOLOGY: This study is a cross-sectional study. This research lasted for a period of two months and all patients receiving radiotherapy within is period were included in this study. A total of 246 questionnaires were completed (152 and 94 in LUTH and UCH respectively) and the data collection was by semi-structured questionnaire. Data obtained were collected and analyzed using SPSS statistics [Social Sciences Statistical Package] 17.0 version. RESULTS: The findings of this research indicated that 68.4% in LUTH and 53.2% in UCH of the patients experienced good care. It also revealed that there is good interaction between the staff and the patient. Most of the patients spent more than 3 hours before receiving treatment and also the reason for such delay were not explained to them. The rate of preferential treatment was noted to be high. CONCLUSION: This study will contribute positively towards achieving effective and qualitative radiotherapy services by creating awareness for the need to minimize patient waiting time as well as the need to explain the reason for such delays. The department should adopt better ways of appointment system so that treatment will be on first come first serve basis. This study will contribute positively towards achieving effective and qualitative radiotherapy services by creating awareness for the need to minimize patient waiting time as well as the need to explain the reason for such delays. The department should adopt better ways of appointment system so that treatment will be on first come first serve basis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Predictors of intestinal helminthic infections among school children in Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria
C Nwalorzie, SC Onyenakazi, SO Ogwu, AN Okafor
July-September 2015, 24(3):233-241
DOI:10.4103/1115-2613.278932  
BACKGROUND Prevalence and risk factors predisposing to intestinal helminthic infections vary widely. Risk factors to intestinal helminthic infections among children have not been documented in Gwagwalada, Nigeria which necessitated present study. OBJECTIVE To determine risk factors to intestinal helminthiasis among children aged 1 – 15 years in Gwagwalada,Nigeria. METHODS Cross-sectional study was carried out from June to November,2011 in public schools using multi-staged,random sampling. Risk factors and helminth species were determined. Multiple stool samples were analyzed using the Kato- Katz technique. Participants had a single anal swab to search for Enterobius ova. RESULTS Of 220 subjects evaluated, prevalence rate of intestinal helminthic infections was 73.2%. Most common helminth identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (40.9%) and least was Trichostrongylus species (2.3%). Logistic regression analysis showed that significant, predictors of intestinal helminthiasis among subjects were female gender (P=0.028), lack of hand washing after defecation (P< 0.01), multiple sources of drinking water (P=0.011) and eating of unwashed fruits/vegetables (P=0.012). CONCLUSION The present study identified predictors of intestinal helminthiasis among children Gwagwalada. Efforts should be made to institute regular health education, provision of potable water, environmental sanitation and de-worming programmes for children,as ways of reducing burden of the infections.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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CASE REPORTS
Giant pseudoaneurysm of a splanchnic artery; A Case Report
IA Nwafor, JC Eze, N Ezemba, CI Ngene, AF Akpan
July-September 2015, 24(3):268-272
DOI:10.4103/1115-2613.278938  
A true aneurysm is defined as an enlargement of an artery resulting in a diameter more than 1.5 times the anatomic size 1 .It can be fusiform when it covers the entire perimeter of the vessel,or saccular when it bulges on one side of the artery. The pseudoaneurysm is a pulsating encapsulated haematoma in communication with the lumen of the ruptured vessel,which affects the the intima and the media and which is stopped from developing by the adventitia and the surrounding connective tissue. 2 Geographically, aneurysm can be broadly divided into intracranial and extracranial types. While the neurosurgeon manages the intracranial types, the vascular surgeon manages the extracranial 3 types .Vascular surgeons also do divide the extracranial types into central(abdominal-aorto-iliac, thoracic including ascending, transverse aortic arch and descending), peripheral(extremities) and visceral(splanchnic arteries)4 . Splanchnic artery aneurysm includes the coeliac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric arteries including their branches. Of allintra-abdominal aneurysms, only around 5% are due to the splanchnic arteries,which could be either true or pseudo5 . The prevalence has been estimated at 0.1-0.2%6 .
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Awareness and attitude of diabetic patients on diabetic eye complications in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
GI Nathaniel, O Adio
July-September 2015, 24(3):252-255
DOI:10.4103/1115-2613.278935  
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus has significant ocular morbidities leading to visual impairment and blindness. Most patients are not aware that diabetes mellitus affect the eye with potential debilitating consequences. The study examines the awareness and attitude of diabetic patients attending the endocrinology clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, on diabetic eye complications in order to examine factors that may be contributing to poor visual outcome. AIM: To assess the awareness and attitude of diabetic patients on diabetic eye complications in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. METHODS: This hospital-based cross-sectional study carried out between 25th March and 28th June,2011 had 225 adult diabetics attending the Endocrinology clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt daily balloted for. From questionnaires and ocular examinations were recorded in the data sheets and analysed using the SPSS version 16 (2007). Simple statistics andcomparisons of associated variables were made using Chi-square. RESULTS: Of the 225 patients examined, 128 (56.9%) were aware that diabetes could affect the eye while 97 (43.1%) were not aware. Only a quarter (33, 25.8%) of them knew of specific eye complications of diabetes. There was no gender specific significant difference (p=0.195). Age and educational status significantly affected their awareness (p<0.005).The duration of diabetes did not have significant impact on the level of awareness of the patients (p=0.066). Only 103 (45.8%) of those examined had ever had previous eye examination of which 26 (26.3%) did so prior to their diagnosis with diabetes mellitus. Less than a quarter (22.3%) was referred by doctors for the eye examination. Age, sex, educational status and level of awareness did not significantly influence the number of those who had the eye examination while the duration of diabetes significant affect the number of those who had eye examination (p<0.005). CONCLUSION: The study underscores the need to improve patients' education on diabetic eye complications and encourage primary care physicians to refer diabetic patients for early ocular examination.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Prevalence of hypertension among firefighters in Rivers State, South- South, Nigeria
Douglas , Kingsley Enyinnah, Oraekesi , Chidi Kelvin
July-September 2015, 24(3):213-222
DOI:10.4103/1115-2613.278930  
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and firemen (firefighters) may be especially predisposed to it or even exacerbate pre-existing hypertension as a result of the nature of their job. This study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension among firemen in Rivers state,South-South Nigeria. METHODS: Following ethical clearance,125 consenting firemen of the Rivers State Fire Service were recruited in this descriptive cross sectional study. They responded to a pre-tested, structured, closed-endedself-administered questionnaire which probed their socio-demographics, knowledge, attitude and practice towards hypertension. Also,their blood pressures,heights and weights were measured from where Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. A Walk Through Survey for immediate work place situation and safety was carried out. Data collected were later analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistical tools. RESULTS: There was a 9.6% prevalence of hypertension among this group of workers in Rivers State. The workforce was essentially young with a modal age group of between 31-36 years. The attendant associated risk factors included altered sleep patterns, over weight and smoking which were all statistically significant P < 0.05. Whilst knowledge of hypertension was high (96%),the behaviour of respondents towards prevention and control of hypertension was poor. CONCLUSION: There ishypertension among firemen of the Rivers State Fire Service occasioned by modifiable risk factors despite adequate knowledge. It is recommended that intensive health education, early detection and treatment be instituted among this group of workers.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Sputum smear pattern among patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria
SS Gomerep, UA Eze, LO Chiegboka, TO Olanipekun, CC Ezeudu, T Shityo, SE Isa
July-September 2015, 24(3):201-206
DOI:10.4103/1115-2613.278928  
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in Nigeria due mainly to the high burden of HIV/AIDS and especially in Benue state which has the highest prevalence of HIV in Nigeria. Sputum smear examination is of importance in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB and can be smear-positive or negative. In this study, we analyzed the sputum smear results of all patients diagnosed to have PTB during the time under review. METHODS The study was a retrospective study done with records of patients diagnosed with PTB between July 2009 and July 2011.The sample size was 305. AIM To determine the smear patterns in pulmonary tuberculosis and its relationship with HIV status. RESULTS There was slight male preponderance among the study group.37% were found to be smear positive,out of which 63.7% and 36.3% were males and females respectively. The highest frequency was between 21 – 40 years and in this age group there were more males than females.72.1% were TB/HIV co-infected and 29.1% of the TB/HIV co-infected patients had smear-positive Tuberculosis. CONCLUSION There is a high burden of TB/HIV co-infection affecting predominantly the youths. Sputum smear results in TB/HIV co-infection are largely negative. There is the need for provision of other diagnostic tests to improve the diagnosis of TB in our environment and targeted intervention among the youth to reduce the burden of TB/HIV.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Primary postpartum haemorrhage in federal medical centre, Owerri, Nigeria: A six year review
Onyegbule A Onyema, Amajuoyi C Cornelius, Ejelonu T UchennaZ, Onyeabochukwu A Duke
July-September 2015, 24(3):242-245
DOI:10.4103/1115-2613.278933  
BACKGROUND: Primary postpartum hemorrhage is an obstetric emergency and is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. It a condition that requires vigilance, prompt and appropriate management. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and determinants of primary post partum haemorrhage in Federal Medical Centre Owerri METHODS: All cases of all cases of primary post partum haemorrhage managed at FMC Owerri The case notes were retrieved from the hospital's Records Department and information on socio-demographic characteristics, nature of labour (spontaneous,induced or augmented) duration of labour and mode of delivery and birth weight, estimated blood loss and the need for blood transfusion were obtained. RESULTS: Out of a total of 4889 deliveries,3725(76.2%) women had vaginal delivery while 1164 (23.8%) women had caesarean section. Out of these deliveries,166 women had Primary Post Partum Hemorrhage (PPH), giving a prevalence of 3.4%. Multiparous women had higher prevalence compared to nulliparas: 88 (48.3%) versus 37 (22.2%) respectively. The commonest cause of primary PPH was uterine atony 72 (43.4%) and cervical laceration was the least cause constituting 13 (7.7%). Caesarean section was associated with higher prevalence of post partum haemorrhage 94 (56.4%). Duration of second and third stages of labour lasting more than 30minutesand 10 minutes respective were associated with higher risk of primary PPH:82 (49.5%) and 87 (52.3) respectively. CONCLUSION: Supervised antenatal care, active management of labour and emergency obstetric care, if employed religiously will drastically reduce post partum haemorrhage and thus its associated complications
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Effects of root canal irrigants on the planktonic form of enterococcus faecalis: A review
Zahed Mohammadi
July-September 2015, 24(3):261-267
DOI:10.4103/1115-2613.278937  
BACKGROUND: Bacteria play an essential role in the initiation and perpetuation of pulpal and periapical pathoses. Enterococcus faecalis is associated with both primary and persistent endodontic infections. However,the frequency of E. faecalis in persistent periradicular lesions has been shown to be very higher than primary infections. AIM: The purpose of this paper was to review the effect of various irrigation solutions such as sodium hypochlorite,chlorhexidine,MTAD and Tetraclean against E. faecalis. METHODS: Papers used in this review were found by searching the key words (Root canal irrigant, sodium hypochlorite,chlorhexidine,MTAD,Tetraclean,Enterococcus faecalis) in PubMed. RESULTS: It seems that,although some both sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine were very effective against E. faecalis. The other discussed irrigant and Tetraclean,MTAD,were effective against E. faecalis in both agar diffusion test and tooth model experiments. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that all discussed irrigation solutions were effective against the planktonic form of Enterococcus faecalis
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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