COVID-19 at the community level: What are the countermeasures?
Damilola Ayowole1, Vivian Ogbonna2, Abimbola Amoo3, Tosin Babarinde4, Jacob Nwafor5, Ugo Enebeli2, Aliyu Sokomba6, Oladimeji Adebayo7, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi8
1 Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Nigeria
2 Department of Community Medicine, University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria
3 Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
4 Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
5 Department of Staff Medical Services, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
6 Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
7 Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
8 Department of Community Medicine, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Dr. Oladimeji Adebayo
University College Hospital, Ibadan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Although several efforts have been implemented to prevent and control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic at the population level, varying outcomes have been reported in several quarters, despite the implementation of socio-behavioral methods commonly at the population level to stop the human-to-human transmission. We did a narrative review of relevant articles of identified countermeasures at the population level, for curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. The key findings were evidence measures such as physical distancing, quarantine, isolation, screening, active case detection, and risk communication if properly implemented. Other countermeasures identified were air disinfection and lockdown restrictions. Air disinfection has a potentially harmful effect on humans, while lockdown restrictions have been counterproductive in many settings. In conclusion, many of these public health measures are with peculiarities and needs to be contextualized to be effective in curbing the pandemic. Further research and regular assessments are needed on the countermeasures.